The New York Times and Pope Benedict XVI: how it looks to an American in the Vatican By Cardinal William J. Levada Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith In our melting pot of peoples, languages and backgrounds, Americans are not noted as examples of “high” culture. But we can take pride as a rule in our passion for fairness. In the Vatican where I currently work, my colleagues – whether fellow cardinals at meetings or officials in my office – come from many different countries, continents and cultures. As I write this response today (March 26, 2010) I have had to admit to them that I am not proud of America’s newspaper of record, the New York Times, as a paragon of fairness. I say this because today’s Times presents both a lengthy article by Laurie Goodstein, a senior columnist, headlined “Warned About Abuse, Vatican Failed to Defrock Priest,” and an accompanying editorial entitled “The Pope and the Pedophilia Scandal,” in which the editors call the Goodstein article a disturbing report (emphasis in original) as a basis for their own charges against the Pope. Both the article and the editorial are deficient by any reasonable standards of fairness that Americans have every right and expectation to find in their major media reporting. Continue ReadingPhoto: CNS photo/Art Babych
Catholic Christian Outreach Second Annual Fundraising Dinner Monday, March 8, 2010 Westin Hotel, Ottawa, Ontario
Address of His Eminence William Cardinal Levada Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
Mind, Heart and Mission: Handing on the Catholic Faith on Campus Dear young people of Catholic Christian Outreach, together with your many friends and benefactors, you do me the honour of welcoming me as a guest and inviting me to speak to you. I greet Archbishop Pedro Lopez Quintana, Apostolic Nuncio to Canada. Your Excellency, you have been here only a few days – and already the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith has come to visit! I pray that your time in Canada representing our Holy Father will be abundantly blessed. Your predecessor, Archbishop Luigi Ventura, was very close to Catholic Christian Outreach, and it is a Providential blessing that so soon after your arrival that you are welcomed by these marvellous young people. I greet His Grace, Archbishop Terrence Prendergast, who has made me welcome in this archdiocese. Archbishop Prendergast, in addition to his duties here in Ottawa, serves the universal Church in the most important work of liturgical translations through his membership on the Vox Clara Committee. That work assists the Holy See in translating the Roman Missal into English and will shape how English-speaking Catholics around the world worship God for generations to come. He deserves our gratitude for a difficult but essential task. I thank Father Raymond de Souza for his introduction. I should say a word about Father de Souza. When I accepted his invitation to Canada to visit Queen’s University, he immediately added another request: While you are here, would you speak at the annual dinner for Catholic Christian Outreach? I thought that was pushing it. So he explained: It’s the best thing happening in the Church in Canada! That’s lofty praise. Father de Souza has been called “Canada’s finest Catholic commentator”. So if he says this the most vibrant sign of the new evangelization, then it would seem to be worth a visit. I am glad I came. My topic tonight was proposed by CCO: Why is the Catholic faith worth passing on? It is a good question. Let me give you a short answer: Because it is true. I will give you a longer answer too. I have entitled my remarks: "Mind, Heart and Mission: Handing on the Catholic Faith on Campus". Now, before I get to that longer answer, I will tell you a little about the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF). The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, as it is called now, was founded in 1542 as part of the necessary reform of the Church in the 16th century. The 16th century was a time of religious turmoil and division of the Protestant Reformation. It became clear that it was necessary for a special organ of the Holy See to guard the faith, indentify errors and promote the truth. The original name given to this new body was the Sacred Congregation of the Universal Inquisition. Early in its life it became known as the Holy Office, to this day the name of the palazzo which houses its offices and the piazza before it. In 1908, the name was officially changed to the Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office. In 1965, after the Second Vatican Council, it received its current name. Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger served as its Prefect from 1981 to April 2005, when he was elected Pope Benedict XVI. The charter given to our Congregation is the following: “the duty proper to the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith is to promote and safeguard the doctrine on the faith and morals throughout the Catholic world.” Here in Canada’s capital, just a short walk from the Parliament buildings, the words of Venerable Pope John Paul II in his 1991 Encyclical Centesimus annus can have an enduring impact: Nowadays there is a tendency to claim that agnosticism and sceptical relativism are the philosophy and the basic attitude which correspond to democratic forms of political life. Those who are convinced that they know the truth and firmly adhere to it are considered unreliable from a democratic point of view, since they do not accept that truth is determined by the majority, or that it is subject to variation according to different political trends. It must be observed in this regard that if there is no ultimate truth to guide and direct political activity, then ideas and convictions can easily be manipulated for reasons of power (Centesimus annus #46). Can anyone doubt that that is what is happening – in Canada, in the United States, in Europe? Pope Benedict has described this as “the dictatorship of relativism”, the phrase he made famous on the eve of his election as Bishop of Rome. The dictatorship of relativism does not so much seek to impose one view on everybody, but rather to drive from political life, academic life and cultural life anyone who refuses to concede that all truths are relative, or to put it more bluntly, that there is no truth which can be known with certainty. Against this relativism and scepticism, the Christian believer proclaims that Jesus Christ is the way, the truth and the life. It is a direct confrontation with the dictatorship of relativism. So let me return to the brief answer I gave – The Catholic faith is worth handing on because it is true – and expand on it in a way that is relevant to your work as Catholic missionaries on campus. “Mind” on the campus The university exists to search for the truth in the various disciplines of human knowledge. While we divide up fields of knowledge in order to better research the particular truths under investigation, reality cannot be divided against itself. Something we know as true in one discipline cannot be utterly contradicted by a truth in another discipline. In this academic pursuit, the truths of Christian faith have a place. It would be absurd to exclude from our common life the truths of physics or philosophy, or the insights of literature or music. In the same way it impoverishes our common life when the truths of faith are excluded from campus. Indeed, in response to the deeper questions of human existence, to exclude the truths of faith is to exclude a rich patrimony of human wisdom. So the first thing to say about the Catholic mission on campus is that it participates in the mission of the university: Scientific and technological discoveries create an enormous economic and industrial growth, but they also inescapably require the correspondingly necessary search for meaning in order to guarantee that the new discoveries be used for the authentic good of individuals and of human society as a whole (Ex corde ecclesiae, #7). We know well that technical mastery without ethical guidance can turn man’s discoveries against himself. We know that political philosophies untethered from the dignity of the person can be lethal. We know that economic enterprises removed from the practice of the virtues can increase human suffering and instability. In all fields, the world needs more truth not less, and so we decline to cooperate in our exclusion from the university campus. We hand on the Catholic faith because it is true, and it belongs in the place where the truth is sought. “Heart” on the campus The search for truth might appear to remain abstract. This brings me to my second point. We hand on the Catholic faith because the truth of our faith is personal. It is personal in its object: Jesus Christ. And it is personal in its subject: the believer, the human person. The university world in which our students live is vastly different from the days when I was young. The sheer volume of information, the constant communication between students, and the connectedness of the campus to the outside world means that students live in a vast ocean of information. The Catholic faith proposes a standard against which all this information can be measured. Last summer, the Holy Father’s encyclical on economic questions, Caritas in veritate, met with a very favourable response in many quarters normally quite distant from Catholic teaching. It received such a response not only because it spoke to the economic problems of our time, but also because it presented a richer view of the human person. It provided a context and a criterion against which economic matters could be evaluated – the standard of the human person, created in the image of God and so endowed with an inherent dignity that deserves to be recognized in boardrooms and factories alike. I know that campus missionaries do not set out to integrate scientific knowledge with Catholic metaphysics as they set up their tables in the student centre. But that it is what they do at the personal level. They help students discover the truth of Jesus Christ, and to see all their other endeavours in light of that relationship – what CCO calls the “ultimate relationship”. We hand on the Catholic faith because the mind of the university needs it. But the heart of the university needs it too. The hearts of the young yearn for meaning, for some purpose toward which they can direct their energies and talents, for some cause to which they can devote their lives. The campus mind seeks knowledge, but the campus heart seeks a great mission. We all recall the stirring words of our Holy Father Benedict XVI at his inaugural Mass in April 2005: If we let Christ into our lives, we lose nothing, nothing, absolutely nothing of what makes life free, beautiful and great. No! Only in this friendship are the doors of life opened wide. Only in this friendship is the great potential of human existence truly revealed. Only in this friendship do we experience beauty and liberation. And so, today, with great strength and great conviction, on the basis of long personal experience of life, I say to you, dear young people: Do not be afraid of Christ! He takes nothing away, and he gives you everything. When we give ourselves to him, we receive a hundredfold in return. Yes, open, open wide the doors to Christ – and you will find true life. We hand on the Catholic faith because it offers something that every young person seeks: authentic, enduring friendship. It may surprise some to realize how much loneliness there is in our universities. The hearts of the young, not just their minds, need the beautiful friendship that the Catholic Church offers with Jesus Christ. “Mission” on the campus I would add a third reason why we hand on the Catholic faith. It is because the Lord Jesus commanded us to do so: Go therefore and make disciples of all nations… This was not a task for the apostles alone. It is not a task today for the pastors of the Church alone. It is a task for every baptized Christian, and therefore it is a duty that includes the university campus. The testimony of many university chaplains is that the modern, secular campus is truly exotic mission territory. I was impressed to hear that CCO missionaries study Redemptoris missio as part of their training. That was the 1990 encyclical of Pope John Paul II on the Church’s missionary activity. Listen to the urgency of what the Venerable John Paul II wrote then: evangelization is the “primary service the Church can render to every individual and to all humanity in the modern world” ... “the moment has come to commit all of the Church’s energies to a new evangelization… No believer in Christ, no institution of the Church can avoid this supreme duty: to proclaim Christ to all peoples” (Redemptoris missio, 2-3). We might ask ourselves: Where are the Church’s energies mobilized for this work of evangelization today? It is essential that these energies are directed to our campuses, for if we do not reach our young leaders today, the future will look bleak indeed. Yet there is nothing bleak about the experience of those who do preach the Gospel to our young people. The Church as a whole has learned this lesson from the World Youth Days – our experience as Americans in Denver in 1993 and yours in Toronto in 2002 still remains vivid. Some of you were present at the last World Youth Day in Sydney in 2008. Perhaps you remember the words of the Holy Father at the concluding Mass: Dear young people, let me now ask you a question. What will you leave to the next generation? Are you building your lives on firm foundations, building something that will endure? Are you living your lives in a way that opens up space for the Spirit in the midst of a world that wants to forget God, or even rejects him in the name of a falsely-conceived freedom? How are you using the gifts you have been given, the “power” which the Holy Spirit is even now prepared to release within you? What legacy will you leave to young people yet to come? What difference will you make? Those questions pertain to young people in a particular way. They presume energy and excitement for the future and the great treasure consigned to young people – the capacity for great ideals and an eagerness to make sacrifices for them. University campuses are full of such young people. Many of them do not know Jesus Christ; many of them do not know that in Him they will find the one ideal which never fades, the one cause that will never disappoint, the one model who will never betray them. The mission on campus is essential because there are so many there who desire a great mission. At the beginning of the WYD Mass in Sydney, the local archbishop, Cardinal George Pell spoke of that immense crowd: . We see young men and women who are just now discovering their mission in life. One mission is better than a thousand options, and we are encouraged by their high ideals in embracing the mission the Lord has chosen for them. We hand on the Catholic faith on campus because there are eager souls looking for that one mission among a thousand options. The mission we propose is greater than any other on offer. I conclude with a personal note about our work at the CDF. Much of our work involves identifying problems, correcting errors, and disciplining abuses. But we do all that so that we can propose the truth of Jesus Christ. In this we have no better model than my predecessor, our Holy Father. For 24 years he worked vigorously to correct errors, but never lost sight of proposing the truth. Had he never been elected pope, the great achievement of the Catechism of the Catholic Church would itself have stood as a remarkable legacy. Now, even with his heavy burden of administrative duties, the Holy Father teaches brilliantly, proposing the Catholic faith anew. I remember being with the Holy Father during his visit to Washington in 2007, when he addressed these words to the U.S. Bishops: “In a society that rightly values personal liberty, the Church needs to promote at every level of her teaching—in catechesis, preaching, seminary and university instruction—an apologetics aimed at affirming the truth of Christian revelation, the harmony of faith and reason, and a sound understanding of freedom, seen in positive terms as a liberation both from the limitations of sin and for an authentic and fulfilling life.” Such words not only challenge us, but encourage us in our apostolate to today’s campus. At the end of the first volume of Jesus of Nazareth, Pope Benedict summarizes his main point with the clarity for which he is known. As we await the publication of the second volume, permit me to conclude with words from the end of the first volume: In the end, man needs just one thing, in which everything else in included; but he must first delve beyond his superficial wishes and longings in order to learn what he truly needs and truly wants. He needs God.... Jesus gives us “life” because he gives us God. Yes, we need God. That is why the Catholic faith is worth handing on. Thank you, and God bless you.
Address of His Eminence William Cardinal Levada Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith St. John Fisher Visitor Lecture Series Saturday, March 6, 2010 Queens University Kingston, Ontario
Five Hundred Years After St. John Fisher: Pope Benedict’s Initiatives Regarding the Anglican Communion
I. IntroductionOf the fifty or so English cardinals, only one was a martyr: St. John Fisher. I am honored to be invited to give this St. John Fisher Visitor Lecture to this assembly sponsored by Newman House at Queen’s University in Kingston. I am reminded of the prayer with which our Holy Father imposed the cardinal’s biretta or hat on my and some four years ago this month: “Receive this red biretta as a sign of the dignity of the Cardinalate, by which you must be strong—even to the shedding of your blood—in working for the increase of the Christian faith, for the peace and tranquility of the People of God, and for the freedom and progress of the Holy Roman Church.” As a way of celebrating these 500 years since the time of St. John Fisher’s saintly and intrepid life, which brought him the martyr’s crown, and of celebrating as well this year’s promised beatification of the Venerable John Henry Cardinal Newman, whose search for the fullness of truth led him to Rome without requiring that he abandon the spiritual heritage that had nurtured him in the Anglican Communion, I entitled my presentation today “500 Years After St. John Fisher: Pope Benedict’s Initiatives Regarding the Anglican Communion.” II. ARCIC and the Catechism of the Catholic Church The recent Apostolic Constitution Anglicanorum coetibus, establishing personal Ordinariates for groups of Anglicans seeking full communion with the Catholic Church, was not created in a vacuum. For many Anglicans the possibility opened by this initiative has seemed to be a logical development of the official dialogues between the Anglican Communion and the Roman Catholic Church during the 45-year period since the end of the Second Vatican Council. Any discussion of Pope Benedict’s initiatives regarding Anglicans might therefore begin with a glance at this important history. Just a few years after the close of the Second Vatican Council in 1965, the first Anglican-Roman Catholic International Commission (commonly referred to by a shorthand term “ARCIC ”) was established in 1969, with a mandate to produce agreed statements on three issues: Eucharistic Doctrine, Ministry and Ordination, and Authority in the Church. One notes immediately that these questions moved from areas of greater supposed agreement (Eucharist) to that of greater challenge, such as authority, which included discussions about papal primacy and infallibility. The Commission worked rapidly to produce its agreed statements: on Eucharist in 1971, on Ministry and Ordination in 1973, and on Authority in the Church in 1976. With the further clarifications on various points that were needed, ARCIC I prepared its responses, called “Elucidations” (published in 1979 and 1981), and produced a second agreed statement, Authority in the Church II, in 1981. The work of ARCIC I was thus completed, and received a largely favorable judgment both within the Anglican Communion and from the Catholic authorities. The Holy See would later approve the agreed statements on Eucharist and Ministry, with their Elucidations. The ARCIC statements on Authority in the Church stated that full agreement on certain issues (eg. Papal primacy and infallibility) had not yet been achieved, and recommended that these issues be addressed by a new ARCIC Commission. The only outstanding question on Ministry and Ordination remained that of the ordination of women, an issue that was new: I note here that the ARCIC I statement on ministry was published in 1973, and only in 1976 did the first ordination of a woman priest occur in the Episcopal Church in the United States. In spite of the request of the Holy See for further elucidation on this question, the Commission maintained that its mandate to examine the classical teaching on ministry and orders had been accomplished, and asked that the question of the ordination of women be remanded for consideration by its successor Commission. Until now, this question has not yet been examined by ARCIC. As a result of the work of ARCIC I, hopes ran high in ecumenical circles. Many Anglicans and Catholics saw in the agreed statements a path leading to the recognition of a common expression of their own faith. Such has been the testimony of the Anglican members of the working group with whom the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith consulted in the preparation of Anglicanorum coetibus, who see Pope Benedict’s Apostolic Constitution as one of the fruits of the ARCIC agreed statements. For many Anglicans, however, the question of women’s ordination remains a source of tension and disagreement, particularly in the Church of England, where more than 300 parishes have refused the ministry of bishops who ordain women, and for whom alternative episcopal oversight in the form of “flying bishops” (suffragans to the Archbishop of Canterbury) have provided supplemental ministry. The decisions of the recent Synod of the Church of England to permit the ordination of women bishops, and the refusal to authorize continued alternative episcopal oversight, have made the problem for this minority of Anglicans even more acute. For its part, the Catholic Church has clearly articulated its position on the ordination of women. In 1975 Pope Paul VI issued a formal appeal to the then-Archbishop of Canterbury, Frederick Donald Coggan, to avoid taking a step which would have a serious negative impact on ecumenical relations. In October 1976, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith issued its Declaration Inter insigniores, stating that the Church does not consider herself authorized to ordain women, not on account of socio-cultural reasons, but rather because of the “unbroken tradition throughout the history of the Church, universal in the East and in the West”, which must be “considered to conform to God’s plan for his Church”. This position was reiterated in 1992 in the Catechism of the Catholic Church, and again in 1994 with the Apostolic Letter of Pope John Paul II, Ordinatio sacerdotalis. In October, 1995, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith issued a Response affirming that the doctrine stating the Church has no power to confer sacred orders on women is definitive tenenda, and thus is to be considered part of the infallible ordinary and universal Magisterium. For Catholics, the issue of the reservation of priestly ordination to men is not merely a matter of praxis or discipline, but is rather doctrinal in nature and touches the heart of the doctrine of the Eucharist itself and the sacramental nature or “constitution” of the Church. It is therefore a question which cannot be relegated to the periphery of ecumenical conversations, but needs to be engaged directly in honesty and charity by dialogue partners who desire Christian unity which, by its very nature, is Eucharistic. Cardinal Walter Kasper, current President of the Pontifical Council for the Promotion of Christian Unity, addressed this very point in an intervention given in June, 2006, to the House of Bishops of the Church of England during its discussions on the ordination of women to the episcopate. In his talk he affirmed: “Because the episcopal office is a ministry of unity, the decision you face would immediately impact on the question of the unity of the Church and with it the goal of ecumenical dialogue. It would be a decision against the common goal we have until now pursued in our dialogue: full ecclesial communion, which cannot exist without full communion in the episcopal office.” Returning to the ARCIC process, in 1983 ARCIC II was established by the authorities of both Communions, with a new group of representative theologians from each side. A list of the agreed statements produced by ARCIC II can provide an idea of the broadened scope of the Commission’s mandate: “Salvation and the Church” (1987), “Church as Communion” (1991), “Life in Christ: Morals, Communion and the Church” (1994), “The Gift of Authority: Authority in the Church III” (1999), and “Mary: Grace and Hope in Christ” (2005). These documents, although rich in content, have not received the widespread attention of the statements of ARCIC I, nor as far as I know have they been submitted for evaluation by the “authorities” of the two Communions, as were the previous statements. A more general analysis of the work of ARCIC II would go beyond the scope of this talk, not to mention the time available. But there is one statement – “Life in Christ: Morals, Communion and the Church” – that addresses the question of homosexuality, which has in the past decade become another Church-dividing issue within the Anglican Communion (and potentially between the two Communions), and thus also touches our topic, since it motivated the need seen by some Anglicans to request the possibility of corporate union with the Catholic Church to which Anglicanorum coetibus is a response. In “Life in Christ,” we read the following conclusions offered by the Commission members as a statement of doctrinal agreement between Catholics and Anglicans on the question of homosexuality: (no. 87) “… Both our Communions affirm the importance and significance of human friendship and affection among men and women, whether married or single. Both affirm that all persons, including those of homosexual orientation, are made in the divine image and share the full dignity of human creatureliness. Both affirm that a faithful and lifelong marriage between a man and a woman provides the normative context for a fully sexual relationship. Both appeal to Scripture and the natural order as the sources of their teaching on this issue. Both reject, therefore, the claim, sometimes made, that homosexual relationships and married relationships are morally equivalent, and equally capable of expressing the right ordering and use of the sexual drive. Such ordering and use, we believe, are an essential aspect of life in Christ.” The Anglican and Catholic members of ARCIC II in 1994 proposed this as a correct common formulation of the moral doctrine accepted by both Communions. No wonder, then, that the ordination of a bishop in a homosexual partnership in New Hampshire, with subsequent approval by the General Convention of the Episcopal Church (USA) in 2003, and the authorization of rituals for the blessing of gay unions and marriages by the Anglican Church in Canada, have caused an enormous upheaval within the Anglican Communion. The fundamental issue here, as many have noted, is the question of authority. This may be briefly summed up in the following two points: Does the Revelation of God, in Jesus Christ and in Scripture, intend to let us know God’s will in a way that requires our obedience (i.e. the imitation of Christ, the Ten Commandments)? Has God in Christ left his Church, founded on the Apostles, an authority by which it can assure that we know the correct meaning of the Revelation amid sometimes varying human interpretations (i.e. the sensus fidei, the Ecumenical Councils, the Magisterium of the Pope and Bishops)? Notwithstanding the tensions created, not only within the Anglican Communion but for ecumenical relations with the Catholic Church, by the above mentioned issues of women’s ordination and homosexuality, last November – on the occasion of the visit of the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr. Rowan Williams, to the Holy Father – Pope Benedict XVI approved the establishment of ARCIC III, which has for its mandate to continue the bilateral dialogue [with the theme “Church as Communion: Local and Universal,” including the discernment of ethical questions on these two levels and the interaction between them]. Such a step is a sign of hope and a commitment to pursuing the path to full corporate union on the part of our two Communions. I think mention should also be made of the Catechism of the Catholic Church as an ecumenical initiative. It was promulgated by Pope John Paul II in 1992, and prepared by a Commission headed by Cardinal Ratzinger, then-Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. I served on the Editorial Committee of seven Bishops which had the task of preparing and presenting the various drafts of the Catechism to the Commission over a period of some six years. I personally witnessed the commitment of time, and of his own theological resources, on the part of Cardinal Ratzinger to this important task—a task proposed by the Synod of Bishops of 1985, in which the presidents of all the Conferences of Bishops participated to review the implementation of Vatican II. Pope John Paul II’s Apostolic Constitution Fidei depositum promulgating the Catechism points out that “it is meant to support ecumenical efforts that are moved by the holy desire for the unity of all Christians, showing carefully the content and wondrous harmony of the catholic faith.” As we met with Anglican consultants in the preparation of Anglicanorum coetibus, these bishops and theologians themselves proposed the Catechism of the Catholic Church as the norm of faith for the corporate groups of Anglicans who might avail themselves of this new instrument for full corporate union with the Catholic Church. Thus I would also characterize the Catechism as an important ecumenical “initiative” of both Pope Benedict XVI and of his predecessor. To conclude this first section of my talk, I want to introduce the musical image I will use subsequently: in speaking of the extensive consultation of Bishops, Synods, and Episcopal Conferences by which the Catechism was enriched, Pope John Paul said, “This response elicits in me a deep feeling of joy, because the harmony of so many voices truly expresses what could be called the ‘symphony’ of the faith.” III. The Logic of Anglicanorum coetibus We turn our attention now to the most recent of the Holy Fathers’ initiatives, the Apostolic Constitution Anglicanorum coetibus, which is itself in continuity with the serious and long-standing engagement with Anglicans exemplified by the ARCIC process. The Apostolic Constitution provides for the reception into the Catholic Church of communities of Anglican faithful which can retain distinctive features of their Anglican spiritual, liturgical, and disciplinary heritage. Union with the Catholic Church is the goal of ecumenism, yet the very process of moving towards union works a change in Churches and ecclesial communities that engage one another in dialogue, and actual instances of entering into communion, do indeed transform the Catholic Church by way of enrichment. Let me add right away that when I say enrichment, I am referring not to any addition of essential elements of sanctification and truth to the Catholic Church—Christ has endowed her with all the essential elements. I am referring to the addition of modes of expression of these essential elements, modes which enhance everyone's appreciation of the inexhaustible treasures bestowed on the Church by her Divine Founder. The "new reality" of visible unity among Christians should not be thought of as the coming together of disparate elements that previously had not existed in any one community: the Second Vatican Council clearly teaches that all the elements of sanctification and truth which Christ bestowed on the Church are found in the Catholic Church. What is new, then, is not the acquisition of something essential that had hitherto been absent. Instead, what is new is that perennial truths and elements of holiness already to be found in the Catholic Church are given new focus or a different stress by the way they are lived by various groups of the faithful who are called by Christ to come together in perfect communion with one another, enjoying the bonds of creed, code, cult and charity in diverse ways that blend harmoniously. Since the Church is like a sacrament, she bears within herself the truth and grace of Christ. When we say that Christ reveals God, and that the Church bears the truths of Christ's revelation in the world, we are admitting that the unenlightened human intellect is not up to the task of knowing God's ways perfectly. We humans need revelation, enlightenment. Baptism, as the foundational sacrament of Christian faith, is the normal means for that enlightenment to begin to penetrate our intellects. Even so, while God in Christ has revealed as much about himself and about our relationship to him as we need, revealed truths about the infinite God still exceed our finite intelligence. There is always an element of mystery in our knowledge of God and God's work. Therefore, we fully expect that while we may accurately know what can be truthfully said, the full knowledge of what that means is enhanced by the contemplation of many groups of people on the same mystery. This contemplation is not just an academic exercise; it also, and necessarily, entails worship. That is why the Second Vatican Council's Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, Lumen gentium, closely associates elements of truth with elements of sanctification: worship enables one to penetrate divine truth with the clarity of lovers who have gotten to know their Beloved through His love of them, and worship thus impels believers to study, just as their study strengthens their love of the God whose goodness they come to learn. Visible union with the Catholic Church does not mean absorption into a monolith, with the absorbed body being lost in the greater whole, the way a teaspoon of sugar would be lost if dissolved in a gallon of coffee. Rather, visible union with the Catholic Church can be compared to an orchestral ensemble. Some instruments can play all the notes, like a piano. There is no note that the piano has that a violin or a harp or a flute or a tuba does not have. But when all these instruments play the notes that the piano has, the notes are enriched and enhanced. The result is symphonic: full communion. One can perhaps say that the ecumenical movement wishes to move from cacophony to symphony, with all playing the same notes of doctrinal clarity, the same euphonic chords of sanctifying activity, observing the rhythm of Christian conduct and charity, and filling the world with the beautiful and inviting sound of the Word of God. While the other instruments may tune themselves according to the piano, when playing in concert there is no mistaking them for the piano. It is God's will that those to whom the Word of God is addressed—the world, that is—should hear one pleasing melody made splendid by the contributions of many different instruments. The Catholic Church approaches ecumenical dialogue convinced, as the Second Vatican Council's Decree on Ecumenism states, that "our Lord has entrusted all the blessings of the new covenant to the one apostolic college of which Peter is the head, in order to establish the one Body of Christ on earth into which all should be fully incorporated who belong in any way to the People of God". She believes that she is the Mystical Body of Christ, and she is convinced that the Church of Christ subsists in her because she recognizes that while she is like the piano that has all the notes—that is, all the elements of sanctification and truth— many of those notes are shared with other communities, and those communities often have beautiful ways of sounding those notes that can lead to a heightened appreciation of truth and holiness both within the Catholic Church and within her partners in the ecumenical endeavor. Many Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches, for example, design their church buildings and the liturgies that are celebrated in them with an accent on the eschaton. One who walks into a building shaped like a Greek cross and surmounted by a dome, covered in mosaics and filled with icons that depict our brothers and sisters in heaven, and who breathes in the incense—a heavenly air—and listens to the chants, is expected to think that he or she is already experiencing the Kingdom of heaven. No wonder Pope John Paul used the image of the Church “breathing with two lungs.” For Latin Catholics, the Eastern Church liturgies can seem to provide a rich new timbre to the notes in which our common praise of God is lifted up. Other ecclesial communities formed from the Reformation encourage their members to base their prayer lives on the written Word of God. This Biblical focus—here I am not referring to the errors that underlie the Protestant phrase sola scriptura—is perhaps more intense outside the visible confines of the Church. The Catholic Church plays the right note, but other communities give it more volume. Turning to the Anglican Communion, we can see many elements that impel towards full unity: regard for the unifying role of the episcopate, an esteem for the sacramental life, a similar sense of catholicity as a mark of the Church, and a vibrant missionary impulse to name but a few. These are by no means absent from the Catholic Church, but the particular manner in which they are found in Anglicanism adds to the Catholic understanding of a common gift. These considerations help us appreciate the Catholic Church's insistence that there is "no opposition" between ecumenical action and the preparation of people for reception into full Catholic communion. Indeed, the first—ecumenical action—logically leads to the second—reception into full communion. Unitatis redintegratio asserts that almost all people "long for the one visible Church of God, that truly universal Church whose mission is to convert the whole world to the Gospel, so that the world may be saved, to the glory of God." To return to our earlier metaphor, people long for discordant tones and voices to be harmonized, united, and when an individual or indeed, a community, is ready for unity with the Church of Christ that subsists in the Catholic Church, it would be a betrayal of Catholic ecumenical principles and goals to refuse to embrace them, and to embrace them with all the distinctive gifts that enrich the Church, that help her approach the world sym-phonically—sounding together or united. Just as there is one Savior, so there is one universal sacrament of salvation, the Church. The Eastern Churches that are united to Rome are enjoined to preserve their distinct institutions, liturgical rites, ecclesiastical traditions and way of Christian life. By so doing, the Second Vatican Council teaches, they do not harm the Church's unity, but rather make it manifest. The experience we are embarking on with Anglicanorum coetibus promises also to make the Church's fundamental unity manifest by adding to her life distinctive expressions of Christ's gifts of holiness and truth. Nevertheless, a strict comparison between the Anglicans and the Eastern Catholic Churches would not be correct. The Eastern Churches—like the Ukrainian Catholic Church so numerous in Canada—are in the fullest sense of the term churches, since they have valid apostolic succession and thus, valid Eucharist. They therefore are called Churches sui iuris because they have their own legal structures of governance, all the while maintaining bonds of hierarchical communion with the Bishop of Rome. The term church is applied differently to the Anglican Communion for reasons rehearsed over a century ago by Pope Leo XIII in Apostolicae cura, so the legal framework for Anglican communities seeking full communion precisely as communities has to be different from that of the Eastern Churches. They remain part of the Western Latin Church tradition. That is why the Holy Father has decided to erect “personal ordinariates,” in order to provide pastoral care for such groups who wish to share their gifts corporately with their Catholic sisters and brothers, and with whom they have shared a long history before the Reformation in the 16th century. The Apostolic Constitution of Pope Benedict XVI is a courageous way of seeking to ensure that distinctive elements in the Anglican world which foster Catholic unity, can remain distinctive when groups of Anglicans enter full communion. This is to the enrichment of everyone, even though these distinctive elements are to be lived ordinarily by those who come from an Anglican background. Already in 2003, The Book of Divine Worship, being elements of the Book of Common Prayer revised and adapted according to the Roman Rite for use by Roman Catholics coming from the Anglican tradition, was published with the approval of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops of the United States of America and confirmation by the Apostolic See. Anglicanorum coetibus envisages not only the inclusion of significant elements of Anglican ritual for Anglican groups coming into full communion, but also certain pastoral practices that are part of their heritage in order to provide a greater continuity for enriching their spiritual and ecclesial life in the future. Moreover, among the distinctive elements of Anglican heritage should be included the spiritual and intellectual gifts of the Oxford Movement in the 19th century. The then-Anglican cleric Newman, together with his fellow Tractarians, have left a legacy that still enriches a common Catholic patrimony. This is the first time that the Catholic Church has reached out, in response to men and women of Western Christianity who desire full communion, and accorded them a distinctive place in the path toward full communion. This is not surprising. Twenty-eight years ago, the great historian of ecumenism, Yves Congar, wrote that, if we take seriously that the Holy Spirit has been working among our fellow Christians, we have to take seriously the ways they express their beliefs. When their particular expression of faith adds harmony to ours, and ours add harmony to theirs, the logical step is to pass from talking longingly about unity to living in unity—a unity whose essence is revealed in harmonious diversity. The unity Christ desires is visible. It is not elusive or even unreachable. Likewise, the totality that Christ desires is visible. These assertions lie behind the famous teaching of Lumen gentium that the Church of Christ subsists in the Catholic Church. But it is equally true to say that the unity Christ desires for his Church can always be added to, just as there is room for another instrument in the orchestra. The totality that Christ desires does exist in terms of the elements of sanctification and truth that the Church possesses. But the sharing of those elements, and the manner of celebrating them, is still far from complete. We sometimes do not know the value of what we possess, and we need the Spirit-filled insights of others to recognize the treasures we have. IV. Conclusion The Eucharist is the summit and the source of Christian life. It is celebrated in notably different ways in the various Churches that make up the Catholic world. Each liturgical rite sheds light on the mystery of the Eucharist—its re-presentation of the sacrifice of Calvary; its strengthening of the Mystical Body, the Church; the Real Presence of our Savior; the foretaste of the heavenly banquet, and so on. May the diversity in unity that is the Eucharist—Joseph Ratzinger has said there is really just one Eucharist with many altars—be a model for the Christian unity to which we are all committed.
 Cf. #1577. Pope John Paul II, Apostolic Constitution Fidei depositum, no. 3.  Ibid., no. 1.  UR 3: "It is only through Christ's Catholic Church, which is the all-embracing means of salvation, that the fullness of the means of salvation can be attained." Cf. LG 8.  See Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae II-II, Q. 180, A. 3 ad 4.  UR 3.  OE 2.  LG 8.  See UR 4.  UR 1.  See OE 1; cf. Congregation for Oriental Churches, Instruction for Applying the Liturgical Prescriptions of the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches (Città del Vaticano: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1996, par. 21.  See OE 2.  (Mt. Pocono, Pennsylvania: Newman House Press).  Diversités et communion (Paris: Éditions du Cerf, 1982), 241-242.