During the Jubilee, the Sunday readings for Ordinary Time will be taken from the Gospel of Luke, the one referred to as “the evangelist of mercy." Dante Alighieri describes him as “scriba mansuetudinis Christi”, “narrator of the meekness of Christ." There are many well-known parables of mercy presented in the Gospel of Luke: the lost sheep, the lost coin,the merciful father.
The official and solemn announcement of the Holy Year will take place with the public proclamation of the Bollain front of the Holy Door on Divine Mercy Sunday, the Feast instituted by Saint John Paul II and celebrated on the Sunday after Easter.
In the ancient Hebrew tradition, the Jubilee Year, which was celebrated every 50 years, was meant to restore equality among all of the children of Israel, offering new possibilities to families which had lost their property and even their personal freedom. In addition, the Jubilee Year was a reminder to the rich that a time would come when their Israelite slaves would once again become their equals and would be able to reclaim their rights. “Justice, according to the Law of Israel, consisted above all in the protection of the weak” (St. John Paul II, Tertio millenio adveniente 13).
The Catholic tradition of the Holy Year began with Pope Boniface VIII in 1300. Boniface VIII had envisioned a Jubilee every century. From 1475 onwards – in order to allow each generation to experience at least one Holy Year – the ordinary Jubilee was to be celebrated every 25 years. However, an extraordinary Jubilee may be announced on the occasion of an event of particular importance.
Until present, there have been 26 ordinary Holy Year celebrations, the last of which was the Jubilee of 2000. The custom of calling extraordinary Jubilees dates back to the XVI century. The last extraordinary Holy Years, which were celebrated during the previous century, were those in 1933, proclaimed by Pius XI to celebrate XIX hundred years of Redemption and in 1983, proclaimed by John Paul II on the occasion of the 1950 years of Redemption.
The Catholic Church has given to the Hebrew Jubilee a more spiritual significance. It consists in a general pardon, an indulgence open to all, and the possibility to renew one’s relationship with God and neighbor. Thus, the Holy Year is always an opportunity to deepen one’s faith and to live with a renewed commitment to Christian witness.
With the Jubilee of Mercy, Pope Francis focuses attention upon the merciful God who invites all men and women to return to Him. The encounter with God inspires in one the virtue of mercy.
The initial rite of the Jubilee is the opening of the Holy Door. This door is one which is only opened during the Holy Year and which remains closed during all other years. Each of the four major basilicas of Rome has a Holy Door: Saint Peter’s, St. John Lateran, St. Paul Outside the Walls and St. Mary Major. This rite of the opening of the Holy Door illustrates symbolically the idea that, during the Jubilee, the faithful are offered an “extraordinary pathway” towards salvation.
The Holy Doors of the other Basilicas will be opened after the opening of the Holy Door of St. Peter’s Basilica.
Mercy is a theme very dear to Pope Francis, as is expressed inthe episcopal motto he had chosen: “miserando atque eligendo." This citation is taken from the homily of Saint Bede the Venerable during which he commented on the Gospel passage of the calling of Saint Matthew: “Vidit ergo lesus publicanum et quia miserando atque eligendo vidit, ait illi Sequere me” (Jesus therefore sees the tax collector, and since he sees by having mercy and by choosing, he says to him, ‘follow me.') This homily is a tribute to divine mercy. One possible translation of this motto is “With eyes of mercy."
During the first Angelus after his elections, the Holy Father stated: “Feeling mercy, that this word changes everything. This is the best thing we can feel: it changes the world. A little mercy makes the world less cold and more just. We need to understand properly this mercy of God, this merciful Father who is so patient” (Angelus, March 17,2013).
In his Angelus on January 11, 2015, he stated: “There is so much need of mercy today, and it is important that the lay faithful live it and bring it into different social environments. Go forth! We are living in the age of mercy, this is the age of mercy." Then, in his 2015 Lenten Message, the Holy Father expressed:“How greatly I desire that all those places where the Church is present, especially our parishes and our communities, may become islands of mercy in the midst of the sea of indifference!”
In the English edition of the Apostolic Exhortation Evangelii gaudium the term mercy appears 32 times.
Pope Francis has entrusted the Pontifical Council for the Promotion of the New Evangelization with the organization of the Jubilee of Mercy.
List of jubilee years and their Popes:
1350: Clement VI
1390: proclaimed by Urban VI, presided over by Boniface IX
1400: Boniface IX
1423: Martin V
1450: Nicholas V
1475: proclaimed by Paul II, presided over by Sixtus IV
1500: Alexander VI
1525: Clement VII
1550: proclaimed by Paul III, presided over by Julius III
1575: Gregory XIII
1600: Clement VIII
1650: Innocent X
1675: Clement X
1700: opened by Innocent XII, closed by Clement XI
1725: Benedict XIII
1750: Benedict XIV
1775: proclaimed by Clement XIV, presided over by Pius VI
1825: Leo XII
1875: Pius IX
1900: Leo XIII
1925: Pius XI
1933: Pius XI
1950: Pius XII
1975: Paul VI
1983: John Paul II
2000: John Paul II
In the years 1800 and 1850, due to the political circumstances of the times, there were no jubilees.